Fine particle (PM10 and PM2.5) control technology and regulations
PM10 AND PM2.5 - THE EFFECTS, REGULATIONS AND CONTROLLING THIS FINE PARTICULATE
According to the provisions of NAAQS "American Atmospheric Quality Standards": suspended particles not larger than 10 microns and 2.5 microns are defined as pollutants that have a significant impact on air quality.
All particulate matter, or Total Suspended Particulate (TSP), has been subject to controls by municipalities and states even prior to the Clean Air Acts of 1970 and 1990, and their predecessor acts dating as early as 1955. However, beginning in 1987, and following in 1997, 2006 and 2012, the USEPA has established standards for these fine subsets of particulate, PM10 and PM2.5. The states set Particulate Matter (PM) source emission limits in order to achieve the concentrations mandated by these standards.
All suspended particulate, or total suspended particulate emissions limits have been enforced by state and municipal governments due to the provisions of the Clean Air Act , which was passed in 1970 and amended in 1990 , and their predecessors have already begun as early as 1955 Too. Nevertheless, in early 1987 , and then in 1997 , 2006, and 2012 , the US Environmental Protection Agency had established standards for the disposal of these fine particles.
While large particulate can be expelled by normal inhalation and coughing/sneezing, PM10 has been found to be able to embed in lung tissue and even enter the blood stream, where the particles’ chemical constituents will affect one’s health. The smaller PM2.5 particulate also has these health effects but as its smaller diameter approaches the wavelengths of visible light, it also produces the visible haze one can view from cities to the national parks. This fine particulate has been shown to increase heart attacks, aggravate asthma, reduce lung function and contribute to premature death.
Large particles can be discharged by normal respiratory function (breathing, coughing and sneezing), but PM10 fine particles have been found to be embedded in lung tissue and even enter the blood system. At the same time, the chemical composition of particulate matter will inevitably affect human health! The PM2.5 fine particles are more threatening to human health because of their smaller size (close to the wavelength of visible light): it will form haze visible to the naked eye (commonly seen in cities), increase the incidence of heart disease, make asthma worse, Reduce lung function and increase early mortality.
PM10 and PM2.5 are produced in a multiplicity of ways. Natural phenomena, such as waves and wind, wildfires to evaporation, are among those that generate and disperse fine aerosols and solid particles. Human activity, such as transport, cultivation, animal husbandry, excavation, construction, etc., also add to the fine particulate in the atmosphere. Combustion, from residential heating to coal-fired electric utilities to fires in structures, increase this burden.
PM10 and PM2.5 fine particles are produced through a variety of methods - natural phenomena, such as the spread of surges and winds, wildfires, their germination and spread into extremely fine aerosols and particulate matter; human activities, such as transportation and farming , Animal husbandry, mining, construction, etc., also increase the dust content in the atmosphere; incineration, from residential heating to large coal-fired power generation facilities, also increase the dust load in the atmosphere.
Finally, industrial processes, for producing goods and their intermediates, complete the sources of PM10 and PM2.5. Unlike many of the wide area contributors, these sources can be well controlled. Nederman provides the experience, design knowledge and physical equipment to capture, contain and filter the fine particulate, so that it doesn’t enter the atmosphere.
Finally, industrial production -in order to obtain goods and intermediate substances, the generated particulate matter is completely within the range of PM10 and PM2.5 . But unlike the natural phenomena and human activities mentioned above, this can be controlled intact. Kaai Environment captures and filters these fine particles based on rich industry experience accumulation and design capabilities and high-quality processing equipment to prevent them from entering the atmospheric environment.